Thursday, 17 December 2015

Overview of Cloning

Clones are referred to a cell, cell product, or an organism that is genetically identical to the unit of individual from which it was derived. A clone happens naturally, such as the identical twins which are just one of many examples. Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies and have each single bit of their DNA as identical. Human cloning is possibly one of the most heated and relevant ethical debates of our time. Cloning is the process of taking genetic material from one organism, and creating an identical copy of it by growing it artificially.

The entire world would be changed if we began to clone humans, in some ways for the better, but in others it would be much worse. When talking about human lives, lines must be drawn, but where? In order to form a valid and educated opinion on human cloning it is very important to understand the argument from both sides. There are three different types of artificial cloning: Gene Cloning, Reproductive Cloning and Therapeutic Cloning.

·         Gene cloning produces copies of genes or segments of DNA.

·         Reproductive cloning produces copies of whole animals.

·    Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments aimed at creating tissues to replace injured or diseased tissues.

There are two ways to make an exact genetic copy of an organism in a lab:

1. Artificial Embryo Twinning

Artificial embryo twinning mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called nuclear transfer, uses Somatic cell, which is any cell in the body other than sperm and egg, the two types of reproductive cells. Reproductive cells are also called germ cells. In mammals, every somatic cell has two complete sets of chromosomes, whereas the germ cells have only one complete set. SCNT also uses the Nuclear, which is a compartment that holds the cell's DNA. The DNA is divided into packages called chromosomes, and it contains all the information needed to form an organism. It is small differences in our DNA that make each of us unique.

AnilaRani, a professor in biotechnology discusses the concept of clone and its various advantages. She has provided assistance to various patients, couples, and students about various technologies that help them in their particular cause. Some of the advantages of human cloning are discussed in the following points:

·         Provide Biological Children to Infertile Couples: Couples who are not able to naturally conceive a child would be able to clone themselves in order to have a biological child. This would also open the possibility for gay or lesbian couples to have a child that contains both parents DNA and genes
·      Boon for Medical Advancement: Once the process of cloning humans is perfected and becomes a common practice, many other worlds of medical research would be expanded. This would result in improved medicines and even possibly cures for terminal and deadly diseases.

·      Helps to Compensate a Loss: Parents who have lost a child could clone them and have their child back. This would also go for someone who lost a spouse or other family member. This breaches into the more controversial side of human cloning, but is an advantage none the less.

·   Facilitates Organ Harvesting: Anyone who is in need of an organ transplant is placed on an excruciatingly long donor list. Many of these people pass on from their illness before ever receiving a transplant. With human cloning, organs could be cloned from the person’s tissue and used as a transplant.

·       Promotes Elimination of Birth Defects: Any severe birth defect that is detected in the womb could be reversed using human cloning. They would simply take the tissue of the child and create a clone. After they have done this they could manipulate the embryos genes to remove the birth defect and give them a better possibility of living a long and fulfilling life.

·      Provides Prolonged Life: If a person is aging, they could have their young cell cloned in order to preserve their youth. This would be done with the technology of human cloning, and could prolong the average life span of a human being dramatically.

·     Bring Back Great Minds: Legendary, genius, and influential people could be brought back using human cloning. This means that we could possibly create a dozen Einstein’s or Abraham Lincolns to come and help solve world problems.

Tuesday, 3 November 2015

Analysis of Genetic Variations

The term genetic variation is used to describe the variation in the DNA sequence in each of our genomes. This is all with these genetic variations that make us all unique, whether in terms of hair color, skin color or even the shape of our faces. Genetic variations are the differences in DNA segments or genes between individuals and each variation of a gene is called an allele. Population with many different alleles at a single chromosome locus has a high amount of genetic variation. Genetic variation is essential for natural selection because natural selection can only increase or decrease frequency of alleles that already exist in the population. Genetic variation is caused by:

·         Mutation
·         Random Mating Between Organisms
·         Random Fertilization
·         Crossing Over Between Chromatids of Homologous Chromosomes During Meiosis

Geneticvariation among individuals within a population can be identified at a variety of levels. It is possible to identify genetic variation from observations of phenotypic variation in either quantitative traits or discrete traits. Genetic variation can also be identified by examining variation at the level of enzymes using the process of protein electrophoresis. Polymorphic genes have more than one allele at each locus. Half of the genes that code for enzymes in insects and plants may be polymorphic, whereas polymorphisms are less common in vertebrates.

1.       Analysis of Genetic Variation in humans
Genetic variation will result in phenotypic variation if variation in the order of nucleotides in the DNA sequence results in a difference in the order of amino acids in proteins coded by that DNA sequence, and if the resultant differences in amino acid sequence influence the shape, and thus the function of the enzyme. Almost all human genetic variation is relatively insignificant biologically; that is, it has no adaptive significance. Some variation alters the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein but produces no detectable change in its function.

2.       Analysis of Genetic Variation in Animals
Genetic diversity between and within populations displayed by molecular markers receive extensive interest due to the usefulness of this information in breeding and conservation programs. The increasing availability of PCR-based molecular markers allows the detailed analyses and evaluation of genetic diversity in animals and also, the detection of genes influencing economically important traits. It can be judged by having knowledge into the dynamic process of genetic variation in animals by presenting the thoughts of scientists who are engaged in the generation of new idea and techniques employed for the assessment of genetic diversity, often from very different perspectives.

Variation is Genetic Key to Survival
AnilaRani a renowned name as a professor in biotechnology and conducts various seminars about various branches and fields concerned with biotechnology. According to her, you can define genetically healthy population as having a large amount of genetic variability. The information for each of an organism's characteristics is carried on a gene, but a gene can have different forms. These are known as alleles, and a large range of alleles leads to a wide variety of genetic "options" or genetic "possibilities". She is a professional trainer that guides various students, teachers, medical students, and many more in biotechnical topics. 

Monday, 19 October 2015

Principle of DNA Sequencing

The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequencing is a technique used to determine the nucleotide sequence of DNA. The nucleotide sequence is the most fundamental level of knowledge of a gene or genome. It is the blueprint that contains the instructions for building an organism, and no understanding of genetic function or evolution could be complete without obtaining this information.
Finding a single gene amid the vast stretches of DNA that make up the human genome - three billion base-pairs' worth - requires a set of powerful tools. The Human Genome Project (HGP) was devoted to developing new and better tools to make gene hunts faster, cheaper and practical for almost any scientist to accomplish. These tools include genetic maps, physical maps and DNA sequence - which is a detailed description of the order of the chemical building blocks, or bases, in a given stretch of DNA.

Scientists need to know the sequence of bases because it tells them the kind of genetic information that is carried in a particular segment of DNA. For example, they can use sequence information to determine which stretches of DNA contain genes, as well as to analyze those genes for changes in sequence, called mutations, that may cause disease.

How is DNA Sequencing Performed?
DNA sequencing involves the process of figuring out the precise order of the four bases found in one piece of DNA. What this means is that the DNA is really just a template that is used to create a series of fragments. The fragments differ in length by one base and they are separated by size before the bases are identified, which then effectively recreates the original DNA sequence.

Each person has twenty-three pairs of chromosomes - one copy of the human genome. Because technology has limitations, we are limited in how many bases can be read at one time. Therefore, we can't just read each base from one end of a chromosome to the other. To make it feasible, the chromosome is cut down into smaller fragments.

Why Perform DNA Sequencing?
DNA sequencing is important to apply to the human genome. It allows scientists to sequence genes and genomes. Since there is a limit to how many bases can be sequenced in one experiment, larger DNA molecules - as mentioned - have to be 'broken' into smaller fragments before they can be sequenced and reassembled. To ensure that the sequencing is accurate researchers performs the sequencing several times.

Clearly, finding just one single gene amongst the seemingly endless strands of DNA that constitute the human genome needs some very powerful equipment! With continued research, it is likely that better tools will be developed to make DNA sequencing much more rapid as well as cheaper and more practical for researchers to complete. In doing so, we will have a better understanding of the base sequences that can tell us important genetic information in one specific segment of DNA. Once genes are identified and analyzed from sequence information, scientists can look for mutations that cause disease, thereby providing valuable medical information.

AnilaRani, professor in biotechnology has conducted various seminars to demonstrate the principles involved in DNA sequencing. DNAsequencing by radioactive labeling is thankfully no longer necessary due to the advent of dye-terminator chemistry, whereby a single strand of DNA can be labeled with a fluorescent dye corresponding to the base at the 3'end of the fragment.

Wednesday, 30 September 2015

Biotechnology: The Industrial View

Biotechnology is technology based on biology, wherein it harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet. We have used the biological processes of microorganisms for more than 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and cheese, and to preserve dairy products. Biotechnology is the third wave in biological science and represents such an interface of basic and applied sciences, where gradual and subtle transformation of science into technology can be witnessed.

Biotechnology is defined as the application of scientific and engineering principals to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services. Biotechnology comprises a number of technologies based upon increasing understanding of biology at the cellular and molecular level. The science of biotechnology can be broken down into sub disciplines called red, white, green, and blue.

      Red biotechnology involves medical processes such as getting organisms to produce new drugs, or using stem cells to regenerate damaged human tissues and perhaps re-grow entire organs.

        White (or gray) biotechnology involves industrial processes such as the production of new chemicals or the development of new fuels for vehicles.

        Green biotechnology applies to agriculture and involves such processes as the development of pest-resistant grains or the accelerated evolution of disease-resistant animals.

     Blue biotechnology, rarely mentioned, encompasses processes in marine and aquatic environments, such as controlling the proliferation of noxious water-borne organisms.

Industrial biotechnology is one of the most promising new approaches to pollution prevention, resource conservation, and cost reduction. It is often referred to as the third wave in biotechnology. If developed to its full potential, industrial biotechnology may have a larger impact on the world than health care and agricultural biotechnology. The application of biotechnology to industrial processes is not only transforming how we manufacture products but is also providing us with new products that could not even be imagined a few years ago.
Industrial biotechnology has produced enzymes for use in our daily lives and for the manufacturing sector. For instance, meat tenderizer is an enzyme and some contact lens cleaning fluids contain enzymes to remove sticky protein deposits. In the main, industrial biotechnology involves the microbial production of enzymes, which are specialized proteins. These enzymes have evolved in nature to be super-performing biocatalysts that facilitate and speed-up complex biochemical reactions.
Industrial biotechnology involves working with nature to maximize and optimize existing biochemical pathways that can be used in manufacturing. The industrial biotechnology revolution rides on a series of related developments in three fields of study of detailed information derived from the cell: genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics.

Industrial biotechnology companies use many specialized techniques to find and improve nature's enzymes. Information from genomic studies on microorganisms is helping researchers capitalize on the wealth of genetic diversity in microbial populations.

Researchers first search for enzyme-producing microorganisms in the natural environment and then use DNA probes to search at the molecular level for genes that produce enzymes with specific biocatalytic capabilities. Once isolated, such enzymes can be identified and characterized for their ability to function in specific industrial processes. If necessary, they can be improved with biotechnology techniques

Industrial or White Biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for the processing and production of chemicals, materials and energy. White biotechnology uses enzymes and micro-organisms to make products in sectors such as chemistry, food and feed, paper and pulp, textiles and energy. White Biotechnology could provide new chances to the chemical industry by allowing easy access to building blocks and materials that were only accessible before via intricate routes or not at all.

AnilaRani, a professor in biotechnology educates various industrial processes that have contributed to biotechnology’s attractiveness. She conducts various seminars and lectures in all major aspects of economic activity, including agriculture, environmental protection and industry, which are being challenged to demonstrate their sustainability. Industrial Biotechnology can make a major contribution. It can, for example:

        Make agriculture, including the forestry, wherein more competitive and sustainable by creating new non-food markets

        Improve the quality of life of European citizens while reducing environmental impact by developing innovative products at affordable costs

      Help industry increase its economic and environmental efficiency and sustainability, while           maintaining or improving its competitive advantage and ability to generate growth

According to Anila Rani, the White Biotechnology can make a positive impact across all three dimensions of inability: Society, the Environment and the Economy. In short, Industrial Biotechnology is a cornerstone of the knowledge-based bio-economy. It adds value to agricultural products and builds new industrial production schemes targeted towards an overall greater degree of sustainability.

Monday, 28 September 2015

Bioreactors and its domain

A bioreactor is a container which is used to hold organisms for the purpose of harnessing their natural biochemical processes, such as fermentation tank for beer, in which certain microorganisms are encouraged to thrive, causing the contents of the tank to ferment and creating a usable end product. In a batch bioreactor, everything is added at once to a controlled and sealed environment, and the biochemical reactions are allowed to run their course before the reactor is opened so that the contents can be extracted and utilized, disposed of, or further processes. Others operate on a continuous flow method, in which materials constantly flow through the bioreactor. Waste treatment plants, for example, utilize continuous flow to process solid waste.

There are numerous types of bioreactors - batch, sequence, continuously stirred tanks, anaerobic contact processes, anaerobic filters, etc.

1. They can be conveniently classified into three major types based on the presence or absence of oxygen and requirement of stirring:

    Non stirred non aerated bioreactors are used for production of traditional products such as wine,beer, cheese etc.
        Non stirred aerated reactors are used much rarely.
    Stirred and aerated reactors are most often used for production of metabolites which require growth of microbes which require oxygen. Most of the newer methods are based on this type of bioreactors.

2. Based on mode of operation, the bioreactors can be classified into three types:
        Batch reactors
        Fed batch
        Continuous e.g.: chemo stat

3. Based on the method of growing of microbes, bioreactors can be either:

The Petri dish is the simplest immobilized bioreactor. The large scale immobilized bioreactors are used for commercial manufacturing of metabolites. They include:
        Moving bed
        Fibrous bed
        Packed bed

Anilarani, is a proficient professor specialized in biotechnologies and its various branches. She conducts seminars for that students and professionals about the benefits of bioreactor technology. This technology is widely used for its prophecy to reduce the time required for the decomposition of waste. As a result of the accelerated decomposition of the waste in a bioreactor, the production of bio gas also occurs within a shorter period of time. Although the quantity of gas produced in a bioreactor is theoretically comparable to the amount produced at a landfill, its generation over a much shorter period of time makes green energy production a viable environmental and commercial pursuit.

Wednesday, 16 September 2015

Bio-Fertilizers, a natural muck

Fertilizers are chemically synthesized products used for better crop yielding. Bio-Fertilizers are eco-friendly fertilizers that are used to improve the quality and fertility of the soil. The bio-fertilizers are prepared from biological wastage, wherein the chemicals are not used. These naturally synthesized bio fertilizers are beneficial for the soil that marks it more fertile and enriches by introducing required micro-organisms that help in producing organic nutrients. The bio fertilizers not only help to make the soil fertile but it also makes it compatible to fight soil diseases. Therefore, the better the quality of soil is used for cropping, the better is the nutrition the crop can supply and deplete nutrients of the soil.

Bio-fertilizers are produced from bacteria, fungi, and cyno-bacteria. The plant possesses special relationships with bacteria and fungi as they are responsible to provide nutrition, resistance against diseases, and the ability to combat worst climatic conditions. The future of fertilizers is open with bio fertilizers as they are capable to solve the problems of salinity of the soil and helps to run out the chemical from the fields. Bio fertilizers are broadly categorized as:

·      Biocompost: Refers to a kind of organic fertilizer that is prepared from sugar waste. The waste of first decomposed using human and plants bacteria and fungi. Bio-compost has nitrogen and helps the farmers to increase soil fertility.

·    Vermi Compost: Refers to an organic fertilizer that has nitrogen phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, organic carbon, sulfur, hormones, enzymes, and many more. It makes your soil so fertile by providing lots of nutrient in the soil.

·       Phospho: Refers to a kind of bio fertilizer that releases insoluble phosphorus in the soil that makes it healthy and fertile to yield crops

·       Rhizo: Refers to bacteria that introduce nitrogen fixing nodules on the roots of the vegetables, such as peas, beans, thereby playing a significant role in agriculture.

·     Azotobactor: Refers to a fertilizer that improves the collects atmospheric nitrogen from the soil to make it available to the plant. This also helps to shield the roots from other pathogens existing in the soil.

·    Trichoderma: Refers to an eco friendly fertilizer that acts as a bio controller agent and is hyper parasitic against various pathogens in the field.

The study and technology behind bio fertilizers are intense, which is commanded and expertly addressed to students from Anila Rani. She is proficient in providing the detailed concepts about the subject matter and helps to understand the most complicated matter in a simple way. Anila Rani is a professional trainer that admires the students with her fascinated teaching skills. She has guided many people to make the use of bio fertilizers as they are environment friendly and never damage the crop environment.

Sunday, 6 September 2015

Difference between biotechnology and bioscience

The Biotechnology is the field that uses the living organisms and biological systems that develop or can produce products and processes. Earlier, biotechnology was used in agriculture, food production, and medicine. Biotechnology then expanded to a new diverse science in the form of genomics, recombinant gene, immunology, pharmaceutical, and diagnostics.
The Bioscience is another name given to life sciences or a life science collectively. Bioscience deals with the biological aspects of living organisms. Basically, all the eatables, breathable, and sleeper organisms are covered under bioscience. This must be noted that bioscience consists of all the scientific disciplines that study life through living things in either in their past or present.
The life sciences have the science that engages the scientific study of living organisms, such as animals, plants, and humans. Biology is the stream that majorly deals with life sciences, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology that altogether have led to growing specializations fields.
The name Anila Rani Pullagura from Rvce Banglore is reputed in the domain of biotechnology that serves seven years of teaching experience and four years of research experience, where the main areas of interests are covered as biochemical engineering, design of bioreactors, and modification of purifying methods. Anila Rani actively participates in seminars, journals, and conferences. Some of the reputed publications of Anila Rani in International journals are:
  • Characterization of pencillin acylase enzyme produced by mutant E-coli” (communicated),international journal of fermentation technology,2013
  • Molecular Characterization of multi drug resistance in enterobacteria using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Production of penicillin acylase using mutant Escherichia coli strain
  • Isothermal kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dyes sorption using rice husk